Sunday, July 02, 2006

Bosnia and Herzegovina

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02694a.htm

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Catholic Encyclopedia

Population

According to the census of 22 April 1895, Bosnia has 1,361,868 inhabitants and Herzegovina 229,168, giving a total population of 1,591,036. The number of persons to the square mile is small (about 80), less than that in any of the other Austrian crown provinces excepting Salzburg (about 70). This average does not vary much in the six districts (five in Bosnia, one in Herzegovina). The number of persons to the square mile in these districts is as follows: Doljna Tuzla, 106; Banjaluka, 96; Bihac, 91; Serajevo, 73, Mostar (Herzegovina), 65, Travnik, 62. There are 5,388 settlements, of which only 11 have more than 5,000 inhabitants, while 4,689 contain less 500 persons. Excluding some 30,000 Albanians living in the south-east, the Jews who emigrated in earlier times from Spain, a few Osmanli Turks, the merchants, officials, and Austrian troops, the rest of the population (about 98 per cent) belong to the southern Slavonic people, the Serbs. Although one in race, the people form in religious beliefs three sharply separated divisions: the Mohammedans, about 550,000 persons (35 per cent), Greek Schismatics, about 674,000 persons (43 per cent), and Catholics, about 334,000 persons (21.3 per cent). The last mentioned are chiefly peasants. The Mohammedans form the mass of the population in the region called the Krajina in the north-west, in the district of Serajevo and in the south-eastern part of the territory; the Greek Schismatics preponderate in the district of Banjaluka. The Catholics of the Latin Rite exceed the other two denominations only in the district of Travnik and in northern Herzegovina. There are in addition 8,000 Jews and 4,000 Protestants. Divided according to occupation 85 per cent of the population are farmers or wine-cultivators (1,385,291). There are 5,833 large estates, the owners of which are chiefly Mohammedans, 88,970 cultivators of land not their own (kmeten), 88,867 free peasants who own the land they till, and 22,625 peasants who own farming-land and also cultivate the land of others. The population of the towns is small.

Stanovništvo

Na osnovu popisa stanovništva 22. aprila 1895, Bosna ima 1.361.868 stanovnika i Hercegovina 229.168, što daje ukupan broj stanovnika od 1.591.036. Broj stanovnika po kvadratnom kilometru je mali (oko 31), manje od bilo koje Austrijske krunske provincije osim Salcburga (oko 27). Ovaj prosjek ne varira puno u svih šest okruga (pet u Bosni, jedan u Hercegovini). Broj stanovnika po kvadratnom kilometru u tim okruzima je kako slijedi: Donja Tuzla 41, Banjaluka 37, Bihać 36, Sarajevo 29, Mostar (Hercegovina) 25, Travnik 24. Postoji 5.388 naselja, od kojih samo 11 imaju više od 5.000 stanovnika. Dok 4.689 imaju manje od 500 stanovnika. Ako se isključi oko 30.000 Albanaca koji žive na jugo-istoku, Jevreji koji su imigrirali ranije iz Španije, nešto malo Turaka Osmanlija, trgovci, službenici i austrijske trupe, ostatak stanovništva (oko 98 %) pripadaju južnoslavenskom narodu, Srbima. Iako istog porijekla, narod je oštro podjeljen u tri religijske grupe: Muhamedance, oko 550.000 stanovnika (35 %), Grčke Šizmatike, oko 674,000 (43 %), i Katolike, oko 334.000 stanovnika (21.3 %). Poslednji su uglavnom seljaci. Muhamedanci su uglavnom nastanjeni u sjevero-zapadnoj oblasti koja se ove Krajina, u oblasti Sarajeva i u jugo-istočnom dijelu teritorije, Grčki Šizmatici su pretežno u oblasti Banjaluka. Katolici Latinskog Obreda brojniji su od predhodne dvije grupe jedino u oblasti Travnik i sjevernoj Hercegovini. Treba dodati još 8.000 Jevreja i 4.000 Protestanata. Ako se gleda po zanimanju 85 % stanovništva su zemljoradnici ili proizvođači vina. Postoji 5.833 velika imanja čiji su vlasnici uglavnom Muhamedanci, 88.970 zemljoradnika koji obrađuju tuđu zemlju (kmetovi), 88.867 slobodnih seljaka koji posjeduju zemlju koju obrađuju, i 22.625 seljaka koji obrađuju i svoju i tuđu zemlju. Broj stanovnika u gradovima je mali.

The Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1878 has not only done much for the material prosperity of these provinces, but has also been of great assistance to the Catholic religion. This is shown by a comparison with earlier years. In 1850 the two territories contained 150,000 Catholic inhabitants; in 1874, 185,503, in 1897, 334,142, or one-fourth of the whole population, and in 1907,334,000.

About 1880 there were no Catholic families in the district between Gradisea and Banjaluka, now there are 10 monasteries in this region. Before the Austrian ocoupation there were only 7 Catholic families in Trebinje; Trebinje has now several parishes and churches. In Herzegovina 8 parishes, 25 priests, and 36,000 Catholics have increased to 45 parishes, 100 priests, and 110,000 Catholies. The many churches, monasteries, school-houses, etc., which have come into existence since 1878 are proofs of the advance in intelligence and religion. Both territories show how beneficent has been the action of Austria in the Balkan Peninsula. In the agreement made between Austria-Hungary and Turkey of 21 April, 1879, the former country bound itself to protect in Bosnia and Herzegovina the religious liberty of the inhabitants as well as of temporary residents. This agreement includes Catholics. The regulations in regard to marriage and divorce, as well as the exemption of the clergy from public services and military duty, are about the same as those in Austria. The cemeteries are still denominational institutions and are reserved even more exclusively than in Austria for the adherents of each faith.

Austro-Ugarska okupacija Bosne i Hercegovine od 1878 nije samo učinila mnogo za materijalni prosperitet ove provincije, nego je bila od velike pomoći za Katoličku vjeru. Ovo se može pokazati ako se uporede ranije godine. U 1850-oj dvije oblasti su imale oko 150.000 Katolika, 1874 185.503, a 1897 334.142, ili jedna četvrtina stanovništva, i u 1907-oj 334.000.

Oko 1880 nije bilo Katoličkih familija u oblasti između Gradiške i Banjaluke, sada je ovdje 10 manastira. Prije Austrijske okupacije bilo je samo 7 Katoličkih familija u Trebinju, a danas Trebinje ima nekoliko parohija i crkava. U Hercegovini 8 parohija, 25 sveštenika, i 36.000 Katolika poraslo je na 45 parohija, 100 sveštenika i 110.000 Katolika. Mnoge crkve, manastiri, škole i sl. Koje su izgrađene nakon 1878 su dokaz napretka inteligencije i religije. Obe teritorije pokazuju kako je korisna bila akcija Austrije na Balkanskom Poluostrvu. U ugovoru koji je napravljen između Austro-Ugarske i Turske od 21. aprila 1879 Austro-Ugarska se obavezala da će zaštititi religijske slobode stanovnika i onih koji privremeno borave. Ugovor uključuje i Katolike. Zakonske regule u vezi sa brakom i razvodom, kao i oslobađanje klera od javnih službi i vojne obaveze, su skoro iste kao u Austriji. Groblja su i dalje vjerske institucije i rezervisana su čak više isključivo nego u Austriji za pripadnike svake religije respektivno.

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